Demographic Data for Texas
Table of Contents
- Geographical Location
- Most Populated Cities in Texas
- Most Populated Counties in Texas
- Ethnic composition
- Health Indicators
- Health Along the Texas-Mexico Border
- Hospitals and Clinics
- Health Insurance Coverage
- Births and Infant Mortality Rate
- Principal Causes of Death in Texas
- Cardiovascular Disease and Obesity
- Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
- Cervical Cancer
- Cervical Cancer Rates among Women Living in Border Counties
- Education and Income Levels Related to Diabetes Incidence
- Geographical Area and Diabetes
Texas is the second largest state in the United States, after Alaska, covering an area of 261,797.12 square miles 1. Texas is located in the southern United States and shares an extensive border with Mexico, which includes 32 counties located within 100 kilometers of the U.S.-Mexico border 2.
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The U.S. census estimated in 2010 that the total population for Texas is 25,145,561. Its population density rank within the U.S. is number 28. From the year 2000 to 2010, there was a 20.6% increase in the population. For the year 2000, the U.S. census estimated that there were 79.6 persons per square mile 1.
Most Populated Cities in Texas
The five most populated cities in Texas according to the 2010 Census counts include Houston, 2,099,451; San Antonio, 1,327,407; Dallas, 1,197,816; Austin, 790,390; and Fort Worth, 741,206. The city of Houston increased it population by 7.5 percent since the 2000 Census, while San Antonio grew by 16.0 percent, Dallas by 0.8 percent, Austin by 20.4 percent, and Fort Worth by 38.6 percent 2.
Most Populated Counties in Texas
The most populated county in Texas is Harris County, with 4,092,459 inhabitants, and showing an increase in its population growth by 20.3 percent since the year 2000. The other top five most populated counties in the State include Dallas, (2,368,139), showing an increase of 6.7 percent; Tarrant, 1,809,034, showing an increase of 25.1 percent; Bexar, 1,714,773, with an increase of 23.1 percent; and Travis, 1,024,266, showing an increase of 26.1 percent in its population, as reported by the U.S. census 2.
El Paso County is placed among the categories within the Texas counties as having between 1,000,000 to 4,092,459 inhabitants. This county's population has experienced a 15-25% increase from 2000– 2010 3.
The counties experiencing the greatest increase in population of 55.0 - 81.8 percent within the decade of 2000-2010 included: Collin, Fort Bend, Hays, Montgomery, and Williamson. El Paso County was included within the 0.0 - 24.9% change in population 4.
The U.S. census estimated in 2010 that the white only or Caucasian population was 70.4%, with a 19.6% increase from 2000-2010. The Black or African American population was 11.8%, showing an upward trend of 23.9% for the decade of 2000-2010. The Hispanic or Latino population numbered 37.6 %, showing an increase of 41.8% for the years 2000-2010. Asians accounted for 3.8% of the population, showing the largest increase (71.5%), for the years 2000-2010 compared to all other ethnicities 1.
Table .1 DSHS Projected Texas Population by Area, 2010 (not based on US Census data for 2010)5
|El Paso MSA||773,125||84,666||21,624||651,192||15,643|
The U.S. census defines household income as the total amount of money received in one calendar year by all members of a household, ages 15 years or older, which may include household members not related to the householder, people living alone, and other household members, even if they are not related to the family. The total sum of the income includes amounts reported separately for wage or salary income; net self-employment income; interest, dividends, or net rental or royalty income or income from estates and trusts; income from Social Security or Railroad Retirement Supplemental Security Income (SSI); payments received from welfare or public assistance; pensions for retirement, survivor, or disability; and all other income received by that household during a calendar year 1.
According to the U.S. census, persons and families are living below poverty if their total family income or unrelated individual income was less than the poverty threshold specified for the applicable family size, age of householder, and number of related children less than 18 years old, who are currently living in that household 6.
The Census Bureau also employs the federal government's official poverty definition. A person is considered to be poor if the total income of that person's family is less than the threshold adequate for that family, together with every family member. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the person's own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold 6.
In 2008, the median household income in Texas was estimated by the U.S. Census at $50,049, which was lower than the national average of $52, 029. In1999, the per capita money income for the state was estimated at $19,617, which was also lower compared to the national average of $21,587 1.
Health Along the Texas-Mexico Border
There are 32 Texas counties that are located within 100 kilometers (62 miles) north and south of the U.S.-Mexico border. These counties are among the poorest in the United States and have numerous barriers to health education and health care access. Because many health conditions are found to be worse in the border region than in the rest of the state, special attention is given to monitoring disparities along the border 7, 8
Hospitals and Clinics
According to the U.S. census (2002), the Health Care and Social Assistance sector is comprised of institutions or establishments which provide health care and social assistance for the population. This sector includes both health care and social assistance because it is often difficult to distinguish between the boundaries of these two activities. For that year, there were a total of 47,402 establishments dedicated to healthcare in Texas 9.
Of the aforementioned establishments, ambulatory healthcare services numbered 39,974 and 512 hospitals were registered in this state. Facilities dedicated to nursing and residential care (including residential mental retardations /health and substance abuse facilities, community care facilities for older adults, community care retirement and homes for older adults) numbered 3210, and 8,706 were registered as social assistance establishments (including child and youth services, services for people with disabilities and older adults, community food and housing, as well as emergency services, temporary shelters and other community housing services 9.
Health Insurance Coverage
Health insurance coverage in Texas is lower than the national average, as evidenced by data from the CDC for 2006. In that year, 24.6 percent of the Texas population lacked health insurance, compared to 15.4 percent for the rest of the country 10.
El Paso has the second highest (33.2%) uninsured rate in Texas
Source: Combs, S (2005) The Uninsured: A Hidden Burden on Texas Employers and Communities. Transmittal Letter. Window on State Government. Texas Comptroller's Office.
Principal Causes of Death in Texas (2007)
According to the CDC (2007), 38,912 people died of heart disease in Texas, followed by cancer: 35,074, stroke: 9,796, chronic lower respiratory diseases: 8,107, accidents (including un- intentional injuries): 9,392, Alzheimer's disease: 4,814, diabetes: 5,109, influenza/pneumonia: 3,230, kidney diseases: 3291, and septicemia: 2,857 10.
Texas -Leading Causes of Death, CDC- 2007*
- Heart Disease 38,912
- Cancer 35, 074
- Cancer 35, 074
- Accidents 9, 392
- Accidents 9, 392
- Senile Dementia (Alzheimer's Disease) 4,612
- Diabetes Mellitus 5,109
- Influenza and Pneumonia 3,230
- Kidney diseases 3,291
- Blood infections (Septicemia) 2,857
Cardiovascular Disease and Obesity
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term which refers to a group of related diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the principal cause of death in Texas for over six decades (since 1940), and in 2004, accounted for 2 out of every 5 deaths in this state. In the same year, CVD accounted for over 49,922 adult deaths in Texas, of which more than 40,000 were due to ischemic heart disease and over 9,800 were caused by stroke. These figures equal an estimated 121,887 years of productive life (before 65 years of age) lost in the state 11.
In 2007, the percent of Texas children ages 10-17 who were overweight or obese, was 32.2%, a figure which is slightly higher than the national average of 31.6% 12 .
Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Across the country, the states with the largest numbers of teenagers also had the greatest number of teenage pregnancies. California reported the highest number of teenage pregnancies (96,490), followed by Texas, New York, Florida and Illinois (with about 30,000–70,000 each). According to the Alan Guttmacher Institute (2006), Texas had the third highest teenage pregnancy rate (93 per 1,000), preceded by New Mexico and Nevada, as well as the highest teenage birthrates (62 per 1,000), in 2005 13.
According to the Kaiser Family Foundation data for Texas, 35,628 adults and adolescents were living with HIV/AIDS in 2008. This number accounts for 7.3% of the state's population and compares with a total of 490, 696 cases in the United States for that year 14.
In 2009, the estimated rates (per 100,000 population) of AIDS diagnoses for all ages in Texas was 10.7, compared to 11.2 for the rest of the United States 15.
In 2009, there were 2652 cases of HIV /AIDS reported in Texas, of which 2045 were reported in males and 608 in females. This account s for 77.1% of the cases in males and 22.9% in females, respectively 16.
In 2007, there were 988 deaths in Texas due to complications with HIV/AIDS. This compares to the national total for that year of 11,295 17.
According to the Texas Dept. of State Health Services (2007), cancer remains a significant public health issue in this state. Cancer is the leading cause of death for people 85 years of age and younger, as well as the leading cause of death from disease among Texas children 1 -14 years of age. In 2010, the DSHS estimated that 104,141 Texans will be newly diagnosed with cancer and 37,984 will die from this disease. In 2007, there were an estimated 441,416 cancer survivors in Texas who were diagnosed with this disease between 1996 and 2006. In 2007, the cost to the state of Texas for cancer was $21.9 billion dollars 18.
From 2003–2007, 5,397 cases of invasive cervical cancer were newly diagnosed in women in Texas, with an average of 1,079 cases per year. In this state, the age-adjusted incidence rate was 9.7 per 100,000 women, a higher figure compared to rate for the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program , which was 8.1 per 100,000.
Even though this disease is considered to be virtually preventable, every year, from 2002-2006, cervical cancer killed an average of 340 women in Texas. The age-adjusted mortality rate is higher in Texas: 3.1 deaths per 100,000 women, compared to 2.5 per 100,000 women as reported in the aforementioned SEER. Except for Asian/Pacific Islanders, the incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer in Texas were higher than SEER's for each race and ethnic group 19.
Cervical Cancer Rates among Women Living in Border Counties
As mentioned before, Texas includes 32 counties which border the neighboring country of Mexico. In general, women living in the Texas-Mexico border counties (12.3 per 100,000) had higher cervical cancer incidence rates when compared to women in non-border counties (9.5 per 100,000). With regard to the former, non-Hispanic white women in the border counties (9.1 per 100,000) had slightly higher cervical cancer incidence rates when compared to non-Hispanic whites in non-border counties (8.1 per 100,000).
On the other hand, Hispanic women in the non-border counties had slightly higher cervical cancer incidence rates (14.2 per 100,000) than Hispanics in the border counties (13.3 per 100,000). According to the TSHS, women living in border counties experienced higher cervical cancer mortality rates (4.1 per 100,000) overall compared to women living in non-border counties (3.0 per 100,000) 19.
Both regional and distant late-stage cervical cancers are considered to be a marker for missed screening opportunities. When comparing the general distribution of late-stage cancers by border region, it was found that 46.7 percent of women living along the border were diagnosed with late-stage cervical cancer, compared to 43.7 percent of women in non-border counties.
Aside from the BRFSS data, a recent study found that Hispanic women, particularly those who live in counties along the United States-Mexico border, are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive routine screenings for breast and cervical cancers. This may be due to lack of access to health care in the border region and the need for culturally sensitive preventive health care may account in part for these low screening rates among Hispanic women 19.
From 2002 through 2007, diabetes was the sixth or seventh leading cause of death in Texas. In 2007, 5,105 people died from this disease. On a national level, from 2002 through 2004 and 2006, diabetes was also the sixth leading cause of death, and in 2005, it was the seventh leading cause of death across the state. Diabetes is believed to be under-reported on death certificates in Texas, as well as the rest of the U.S., both as a condition and as a cause of death. When compared with the state rate, 24 Texas counties, El Paso County among them, had diabetes SMR significantly higher than the state SMR 20.
BRFSS data show that the percentage of Texas adults who were overweight and obese and also had diabetes increased from approximately 7.6% in 1997 to 13.2% in 2007, although this change was not considered to be statistically significant. By comparison, the percentage of Texas adults not overweight or obese who had been diagnosed with diabetes changed from approximately 3.7% in 1997 to 4.8% in 2007 20.
Education and Income Levels Related to Diabetes Incidence
Texas BRFSS results indicate that education and income levels also affect a person's risk of developing diabetes. Prevalence data from 2007 show adults who do not have a high school diploma had almost twice the percentage of diabetes than those who had a college degree (15.8% vs. 6.9%). In the same way, higher income levels also are associated with a lower risk of developing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes 20.
Geographical Area and Diabetes
Diabetes mortality rates may vary among geographic areas. When compared with the state rate, 24 Texas counties had a diabetes SMR significantly higher than the state SMR: Atascosa, Bee, Bexar, Caldwell, Cameron, Dawson, Duval, El Paso, Frio, Grimes, Hidalgo, Jim Wells, Lubbock, Maverick, Morris, Nacogdoches, Nueces, Refugio, San Patricio, Uvalde, Val Verde, Webb, Wharton, and Wichita 21.
- US Census (2000, 2010) Geography/ Land area - Texas population. Quick facts. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/48000.html (accessed 5-23-11).
- US Census (2010). Texas counties and cities. http://2010.census.gov/news/pdf/cb11cn37_tx_totalpop_2010map.pdf (accessed May 23, 2011).
- US Census (2010). El Paso County. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/ (accessed 8-25-11).
- US Census (2010). Population change in Texas counties. http://2010.census.gov/news/pdf/cb11cn37_tx_perchange_2010map.pdf (accessed 5-27-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2010). Texas Population. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/popdat/ST2010.shtm (accessed 7-6-11).
- U.S. Census (2010). Household Income and Persons Below Poverty. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/meta/long_IPE120208.htm (accessed 7-6-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2010). Healthy Border 2010. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/borderhealth/hb2010.shtm (accessed 8-26-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (1997). Border Facts. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/layouts/contentpage.aspx?pageid=35776&id=34404&terms=texas+border+counties (accessed 9-6-11).
- U.S. Census.(2002). Summary Statistics by 2002 NAICS –Texas. http://www.census.gov/econ/census02/data/tx/TX000.HTM (accessed 5-26-11).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Texas Fact Sheet. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/states/TX.pdf (accessed 6- 30-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2009). Cardiovascular Disease. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=27672 (accessed 6-30-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2010). Overweight and Obesity Data in Texas. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/obesity/pdf/DataFacts.pdf (accessed 7- 29- 2011).
- U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity Alan Guttmacher Institute: http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/USTPtrends.pdf (accessed 5 -31-11).
- Kaiser Family Foundation. Statehealthfacts.org, (2008). Texas: Estimated Numbers of Persons Living with an AIDS Diagnosis, All Ages, 2008. http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?ind=516&cat=11&rgn=45 (accessed 9-6-11).
- Kaiser Family Foundation. Statehealthfacts.org, (2008). Texas: Estimated Rates (per 100,000 population) of AIDS Diagnoses. http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?ind=513&cat=11&rgn=45&cmprgn=1 (accessed 9-6-11).
- Kaiser Family Foundation. Statehealthfacts.org, (2008). Texas: Estimated Numbers of AIDS Diagnoses, All Ages, by Sex, 2009. http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?ind=511&cat=11&rgn=45&cmprgn=1 (accessed 9-6-11).
- Kaiser Family Foundation. Statehealthfacts.org, (2008). Texas: Number of Deaths due to HIV Disease, 2007.http://www.statehealthfacts.org/profileind.jsp?ind=526&cat=11&rgn=45&cmprgn=1 (accessed 9-6-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2007). Cancer rates in Texas. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/tcr/ (accessed 6- 27-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2010).Cervical cancer in Texas. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/tcr/publications.shtm (accessed 7-15-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2009). - Texas Diabetes Fact Sheet. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=53559 (accessed 7- 28-11).
- Texas Department of State Health Services (2009). http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/diabetes/tdcdata.shtm (accessed 8-26-11).